Distribution of Population and Growth Rate
At 00.00 hours of 1st March, 2001, the state of Bihar, with an area of 94,163 sq kms approximately, had a population of 8,28,78,796 persons. Till 1991 Census, the composite state of Bihar was the second most populous state in the country (containing slightly more than 10% of the country’s population), next only to Uttar Pradesh. However, after bifurcation of the state of Bihar and creation of the new state of Jharkhand, the rank of Bihar among the states of India has slipped down to third, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra occupying the first and the second position respectively.
The following statement shows the relative position of Bihar among the 28 States and 7 Union Territories of the country:
PROVISIONAL POPULATION TOTALS 2001
FIGURES AT A GLANCE
Population Distribution, Percentage Decadal Growth, Sex Ratio, Population Density and Literacy Rate
|1.||Jammu & Kashmir||10069917||5300574||4769343||30.34||29.04||896||900||77||99||54.46||65.75||41.82|
|25.||Daman & Diu *||158059||92478||65581||28.62||55.59||969||709||907||1411||81.09||88.40||70.37|
|26.||Dadar & Nagar Haveli *||220451||121731||98720||33.57||59.20||952||811||282||449||60.03||73.32||42.99|
|35.||Andman Nicobar Island *||356265||192985||163280||48.70||26.94||818||846||34||43||81.18||86.07||75.29|
* Area figure of the state on the basis of which the population density has been worked out is provisional. Population Density is in terms of people per square kilometer.
The Population of India includes the estimated population of entire Kachchh district, Morvi, Maliya-Miyana and Wankaner talukas of Rajkot district, Jodiya taluka of Jamnagar district of Gujarat state and entire Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh where population enumeration of Census of India 2001 could not be conducted due to natural calamities.
For working out the population density of India and Jammu & Kashmir the entire area and population of those areas of Jammu and Kashmir which are under illegal occuption of Pakistan and China have not been taken into account.
The Literacy rates for India have been worked out by excluding the population and number of literates of areas affected by natural calamities of Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh as per details given in Note 1 above.
While working out the percentage decadal growth of population of Jammu and Kashmir the population Figures for 1991 have been worked out by interpolation as 1991 Census could not be held there owing to disturbed conditions.
Figures shown against Himachal Pradesh have been arrived at after including the estimated figures of entire Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh where the population enumeration of Census of India, 2001 could not be conducted due to natural calamity.
Figures shown against Gujarat have been arrived at after including the estimated figures of entire Kachchh district, Morvi, Maliya-Miyana and Wankaner talukas of Rajkot district, Jodiya taluka of Jamnagar district of Gujarat state where the population enumeration of Census of India, 2001 could not be conducted due to natural calamity.
Literacy rates shown against Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat do not include areas affected by natural calamities, the details of which are given in Note-1 above.
The following statement shows the population distribution, percentage decadal growth rate, sex-ratio and density of population for Bihar and India.
|FIGURES AT A GLANCE FOR INDIA AND BIHAR|
Population distribution, Percentage decadal growth rate, Sex-ratio and Population density
|SL||India/State||Population 2001||Percentage Decadal |
per sq. km.
* Area figure of the state on the basis of which the population density has been worked out is provisional.
It can be viewed that the growth of population in the composite state of Bihar had been slightly lower than that of India during 1981-1991. However, in the last decade (1991-2001), the growth of population in Bihar has increased roughly by 5 percentage points, being 28.43 percent as against 21.34 percent in India. The state of Bihar now contains 8.07 percent of the country’s population according to the provisional population results.
The distribution of population in relation to the districts, which are the main units of administration in the state as well as the country, can be seen from Table-1 placed at Annexure-1. It is a common phenomenon that there are wide variations in almost every state in respect of area and population among the districts. In Statement-1 below, all the districts in the state have been ranked in order of their population:
STATEMENT – 1
|District||Population 2001||Percent to total Population |
of the State in 2001
|Percent to total population |
of the State in 1991
From the point of population distribution, the three top districts in Bihar are Patna (5.68%), East Champaran (4.75%) and Muzaffarpur (4.52%). These three districts have retained their rank and position vis-à-vis 1991 Census. Patna is the most populous district of the State. The three districts at the bottom are Sheohar (0.62%), Sheikhpura (0.63%) and Lakhisarai (0.97%). All these three districts are newly created districts, carved out of the old districts of Sitamarhi (Sheohar) and Munger (Sheikhpura and Lakhisarai) after 1991 Census. Sheohar is now the least populous district of the state. The average population of a district in Bihar works out to be 2239967. It is noteworthy that 11 out of the top 13 districts in order of population are from the North Bihar region, Patna and Gaya being the two exceptions which belong to the Bihar Central region.
The comparative distribution of population among the districts has been depicted in the diagram presented in this paper.
GROWTH RATE OF POPULATION IN DISTRICTS
The population of a country or its constituent states keep changing over a period of time. The excess of incidence of births over that of deaths causes an increase in the population of the country or the state and this is termed as natural increase. Migration is another important factor for population variation, though, normally it does not have a substantial effect on the population growth of any country or state. Hence, it is mainly the interaction of births and deaths that alters the population status of any country or state.
Table–2 placed at Annexure–2 shows the district-wise decadal variation in population since 1901. The diagram depicting the decennial growth rate (1901-2001) of Bihar is presented in this paper. It is observed from Table–2 that the growth rate has shown very wide fluctuations in the districts over the decades. During 1901-11, while the state and most of its districts have shown an increase in growth rate of their population, the districts of Patna, Nalanda, Bhojpur, Buxar, Kaimur, Rohtas, Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj have shown a decrease in their population size although the decrease has been very nominal in case of Patna and Nalanda. During 1911-21, when the population of the state and most of the districts decreased, there was an increase in population in Saran, Siwan, Gopalganj, West Champaran, East Champaran, Purnia, Katihar, Araria and Kishanganj districts of north Bihar. From the decade 1921-31 onwards, no district in the state registered a negative growth rate, i.e. decline in population, although fluctuations were noticed in the population growth rate among the districts in all the succeeding decades. From the decade 1951-61, almost all the districts had started showing substantial increase in the growth rate of population. In the decade 1991-2001, as many as 22 districts have recorded population growth rate higher than the state average (28.43%) among which the newly created district of Sheohar ranks first (36.16%). The district with lowest population growth rate during the decade is Nalanda (18.64%) which, in fact, has shown a decline in the population growth rate vis-à-vis 1981-91 (21.73%).